Experiment No.: 10
Identification of Various Active and Passive Electronic Components in a Given Circuit
To identify various active and passive electronic components in a given circuit.
1. Active Components : An active component is an electronic component which supplies energy to a circuit.
Common examples of active components are:
- Voltage sources
- Current sources
- Generators (such as alternators and DC generators)
- All different types of transistors (such as bipolar junction transistors, MOSFETS, FETs, and JFET)
- Diodes (such as Zener diodes, photodiodes, Schottky diodes, and LEDs)
2. Passive Components: A passive component is an electronic component which can only receive energy, which it can either dissipate, absorb or store it in an electric field or a magnetic field. Passive elements do not need any form of electrical power to operate. As the name ‘passive’ suggests – passive devices do not provide gain or amplification. Passive components cannot amplify, oscillate, or generate an electrical signal.
Common examples of passive components are:
Different Elements Identified:
|Sl. No.||Name of the Elements||Figure of the Component||Symbol||Component Type||Function||Application||No. of Terminals|
|1.||Resistor||Passive||It resist the flow of current||Shunt, multiplier, current controller,||2|
|2.||POT (Potentiometer)||Passive||It works as a variable resistor||Control volume, brightness, colour||3|
|3.||LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)||Passive||It is used where there is a need to sense the presence and absence of light is necessary.||Alarm clocks, street lights, light intensity meters, burglar alarm circuits||2|
|4.||Inductor||Passive||It helps to store energy in the form of magnetic energy when electric current flows through it||Choking, blocking, attenuating, or filtering/smoothing high frequency noise in electrical circuits||2|
|5.||Polarised Capacitor||Passive||It passes AC and block DC||to filter power supplies in ac to dc rectifier circuit||2|
|6.||Non Polarised Capacitor||Passive||It has no implicit polarity – it can be connected either way in a circuit||used in circuits of coupling, decoupling, feedback, compensation, and oscillation||2|
|7.||PN Junction Diode||Passive||It is used to remove negative signals from AC current||Rectifier circuit, isolating signals from a supply, and mixing signals||2|
|8.||Zener Diode||Active||It can act as a steady output voltage for a load connected in parallel with it||Voltage regulation, as reference elements, surge suppressors, switching applications and clipper circuits||2|
|9.||LED (Light Emitting Diode)||Passive||It is a specialised type of diode as they have very similar electrical characteristics to a PN junction diode||Modern illumination, indicator, display||2|
|10.||PNP Transistor||Active||It helps to control current flow in heavy applications||Amplification circuits||3|
|11.||NPN Transistor||Active||It is used to amplify weak signals||Switching applications, amplification circuits||3|
|12.||FET (Field Effect Transistor)||Active||It is a voltage controlled device due to this it is used in operational amplifier as voltage variable resistors.||Input amplifiers in devices i.e. voltmeters, oscilloscopes, and other measuring devices||3|
|13.||MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor)||Active||It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device.||automotive electronics, particularly as switching devices in electronic control units, and as power converters in modern electric vehicles||3|
|14.||SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)||Active||It is essentially a switch with no moving parts. It consists of a semiconductive path and what is called a bridge.||used in devices where the control of high power, possibly coupled with high voltage, is demanded||3|
|15.||Transformer||Passive||It is a static device which transfer electric power from one circuit to another without changing it’s frequency.||To step up and step down the voltage and current||4 or 5 (in case of centre tapped transformer)|
Remarks: The aforesaid elements are identified successfully in a given circuit.