Identification & Study of the Specified Components of Water Turbine

Experiment No.: 4

Experiment Name:

Identification & study the specified components of water turbine using cut section model.


  1. To identify the specified components of water turbine
  2. To study the same using cut section model


Kaplan Turbine: Kaplan Turbine is a low head (water head upto 30 m) turbine. It works on the principle of axial flow reaction. In axial flow turbines, the water flows through the runner along the direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the runner. The water at the inlet of the turbine possesses both kinetic energy as well as pressure energy for effective rotation the blades in a hydro-power station.

  1. Control device with adjustable blades
  2. Shaft
  3. Runner
  4. Rotor blades
  5. Draft tube

Some parts of the Kaplan Turbine is shown below:

Fransis Turbine: Francis Turbine is a medium head (water head from 30 to 300 m) turbine and combination of both impulse and reaction turbine, where the blades rotate using both reaction and impulse force of water flowing through them producing electricity more efficiently. Francis turbine is used for the production of electricity in hydro power stations.

Some parts of the Fransis Turbine is shown below:

  1. Spiral casing
  2. Runner blade
  3. Link
  4. Guide wheel
  5. Guide vane

Pelton Wheel Turbine: Pelton Turbine is a Tangential flow high head (water head more than 300 m) impulse turbine in which the pressure energy of water is converted into kinetic energy to form high speed water jet and this jet strikes the wheel tangentially to make it rotate. It is also called as Pelton Wheel.

Some parts of the Pelton Wheel Turbine is shown below:

  1. Nozzle and Flow Regulating Arrangement
  2. Runner and Bucket
  3. Horizontal Shaft
  4. Casing
  5. Braking Jet


The components of the Kaplan, Fransis & Pelton Wheel turbine are identified successfully.

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