Lamps - Electrical Notebook

Canberra
Australia

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Lamps

Types

There are various lamp types available, some of which are frequently encountered and others that are not so common.  There are also a considerable number of different terms for describing the same lamp so this table should clarify the key elements with the more commercially recognised names.

Common
Reference
Lamp
Type
Comment
Efficiency Lm/W
(typical-average)
LED
Light
Emitting Diode
Extremely efficient and economic. The user should be aware that any inefficiency is probably to do with the design of the lamp housing itself. LED lighting is progressively developing alternatives for nearly all types of lamps although the style will not necessarily match that of traditional lamps.
55 plus
CFL
Compact Fluorescent Replacement
Globes
A small efficient fluorescent lamp suitable for replacing incandescent lighting. These are available in a multitude of shapes including spirals, spheres, bi-axis, tri-axis and candles.
40 -60
CFL
Compact Fluorescent
Large Wattages
A larger and more efficient compact fluorescent lamp.  Available in a multitude of shapes including '2D', single axis, bi-axis and tri-axis units. Older stock may have an efficiency less than the required standard today.
55 - 80
T5


Fluorescent Batten
The most efficient of the fluorescent battens and probably the most specified for today’s commercial buildings.
70 – 90
T8



Fluorescent Batten
The common fluorescent lamp for the end of the twentieth century. This is still well within the EU and AU limits of efficiency and even has the benefit of a better ignite in cold weather.
60 – 85
T12
Fluorescent Batten
The oldest and least efficient of the fluorescent battens but modern derivatives are producing energy compliant lumen outputs.
Unfortunately, due to a decline in popularity, variations and replacements are difficult to obtain.
72 - 82
Circline
(T9)
Fluorescent Circular
This is essentially a fluorescent tube provided in a circular form. Great for utility lights. These unfortunately have a relatively short lifespan, possibly to do with the environments they were most often installed in. These do in fact have LED replacement options.
72 - 82
GLS
Incandescent
These are the traditional lamp.  Available in all sorts of shapes, globes, candles, mushrooms, spheres, tubes and PAR’s.  These filament vacuum lamps are the least efficient of all lamps. Where certain countries have signed up to a carbon reduction policy, these are already banned once stock ends.  
Manufacturers have been researching and developing replacements for such lams and now LED and compact fluorescent replacements are available in compatible shapes and sizes of credible quality
7 – 12
Dichroic
Halogen Dichroic
These are great for shop spotlighting and the lower 12 Volt versions were ideally safe for wet areas. Unfortunately, these are also notorious for being inefficient and uneconomical with their short and temperamental life spans. These are still available and may be used as an offset within the building average efficiency. But beware of the number of replacements per year.
LED replacements are now available of credible quality.
Halogen
Halogen Capsule
These provide a punch of light and come in a single or double ended connection.  Although the wattages are generally higher through to 1500Watts the efficiency of these lamps does not extrapolate terrifically.
10 - 22
Halogen GLS
Halogen
This is a hybrid replacement for GLS lamps. Essentially it is a Metal Halide capsule encased within a GLS globe.
12 - 22
HID
HID
High intensity discharge lamps.  These are generally very efficient but come in several types with distinct characteristics.
80 - 150
MH
Metal Halide
HID
These provide a punch of light and are provided as a capsule in various shaped housings including reflector type PAR lamps.  Wattages are from 35 Watts to 2000Watts and even beyond for special applications.
80 - 110
Mercury
Mercury
HID
Providing a whiter light of the higher output HID series of lights.  Some re-strike delay might be experienced.
36 - 56
SON
SOX
LPS
HPS
Sodium
HID
Sodium discharge lamps are probably the most efficient of all traditional lighting but carry the characteristic yellow colour. Long re-strike delays are experienced whilst the lamp cools to a strike temperature. Hence, these lamps are most economical and effective on roads.
. . . . but always good for carol singing under.
88 - 150
Lamp technology is always changing and advancing.  The information here is based on examples from Philips Lighting, GE lighting, Osram and other local brands of lamps.

Location
Canberra,
Australia.
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